F.A.Q. for Robonomics network


Cyber physical systems’ adaptive system of distribution, control and service delivery for the whole planet, directly available for end-user.

Global network of mass production cyber physical systems.

What problem do you solve?

Humankind experiences a constant demand of the exponential growth of mass production of goods and services. Full-scale appliance of CPS in production, logistics and urban life will allow us to cope with increasing complexity of supply chains and deliver quality product to consumers. The main issue here is arranging collaboration of different cyber physical systems (CPSs).


We consider arranging collaboration of cyber physical systems’ work as a network based on market mechanisms the most sustainable option.

What does the paper describe?

The paper describes the means of p2p network organization in such a way that cyber physical systems can function as services.

Could you give examples of industrial tasks which such a network can solve?

  1. How to organize direct interaction between robots of two different corporations bypassing all third parties and middle-men?
  2. How to build a global supply chain from fully automated factories and logistics services?
  3. How to control mass production of goods and services by the means of capital?

What users’ problems can such a network solve?

  1. How to build trust to sensor networks and goods produced at the robotized factories in different cities?
  2. How to provide direct access to all users for ordering goods and services in smart cities and industrial areas?
  3. How to provide transfer of ownership to consumers of any product, if no human party participates in its production and logistics?
  4. How can a fully automated factory understand the changing needs of customers?

How does it work at the national level?

The most interesting issue that arises here is taxing of robots’ activities. We can’t tax the robots’ activities fairly, as it’s impossible to understand what is an independent robotized unit. It is easier with cyber physical systems: if CPS is similar to a firm, it becomes possible to levy taxes and make them a part of each transaction in the Robonomics network.

Why do you base communications of CPSs consolidated into one network on the market mechanisms?

We believe that the market mechanism makes network most sustainable, thus capable of self-organization and adaptation to changes over time. The requirement, which the network imposes on CPS is presenting the CPS as an economic agent. That fully corresponds to the idea of presenting CPS as a service and, at the same time, it solves this task.

CPS as a service?

Yes, absolutely right. The easiest way to explain such a thing is by giving an example of a trend to create smart factories in Industry 4.0. Smart factories provide services for implementing a certain behavioral model, which the user wants, realizing that in the end it will result in product or service expected by the user. If we summarize this approach, having applied it to services of sensor networks and unmanned logistics, we will get the term “CPS as a service”.

Could you give an example of a sensor network as a service?

Imagine a city that has 100 sensors capable of measuring CO2 emission rates at any given moment. Using such a CPS as a service, you request sensors located on Vasilyevsky Island in Saint Petersburg to take samples and publish the data at 17:00 Moscow time.

And what about an example of unmanned logistics?

You order a drone, which will fly to the specified GPS coordinates and open a section for transportation for 10 min. After that, it will fly to the other specified GPS coordinates and open another section for transportation for 10 more min.

What does Robonomics network mean?

We call the network of CPS working as services and united by the market mechanisms the Robonomics network.

What kind of solution does your team develop?

The paper provides an overview of principles and mechanisms of Robonomics network. We actually develop the Robonomics platform: a set of instruments for engineers, developers of smart cities and Industry 4.0, which will solve the problems of access, implementation and verification of service implementation results provided by CPS. Having such instruments we will manage both uniting a large number of CPS services for getting end-service or products for citizens and creating many independent services inside a particular city or industrial area for users.

Who are the members of Robonimics network?

The Robonomics network unites several types of members:

  1. Service users.
  2. CPSs working as services.
  3. Providers of network messages. We call them lighthouses.
  4. Observation networks.

What are the economic incentives for supporting the Robonomics network?

In a way similar to Bitcoin, for example: incentives are constituted of emission and commission fees. At the first stage, emission will be a more pronounced incentive. As time will pass – and the system will get more stable, emission will reduce and eventually will be supplanted by a commission model.

What do we need lighthouses for?

Lighthouses are the basis of network existence. Economic game created for lighthouses will stimulate them maintain communication channels of Robonomics network and locate liability contracts of cyber physical systems to Ethereum Blockchain.

Briefly describe the entire operational cycle in the network

  1. CPS publishes a variety of offers for services according to the implementation of behavioral models accessible for them. They attach economically important information: price and offer existence time. Each offer is ratified with an address of the Ethereum network.
  2. Users publish demand indicating the observation network.
  3. Lighthouses find consensual supply and demand and send transactions of creating a contract liability of the CPS to the user for implementing a behavioral model.
  4. CPS sees the contract liability and starts implementing the service.
  5. CPS sends a message with an IPFS-hash of the journal of operations accomplished due to the service implementation.
  6. Observation network receives the message with operations journal, verifies it and makes a decision about the status of the liability (fulfilled or not).
  7. Observation network signs the CPS operation journal together with decision it has taken and sends this compound message to the communication channel.
  8. The lighthouse receives the message in the communication channel and locates the transaction to Ethereum Blockchain.
  9. As a result of transaction’s location the liability contract finalizes, the commission fee of the observation network releases and is transferred to the account of the observer, the emission fee of the Robonomics network releases and is transferred to the account of the lighthouse.

What are the communication channels of Robonomics?

Organized message exchange using pubsub pattern and deferred signature technology allows us to provide communication channels of supply and demand for service delivery by cyber physical systems. It is necessary to create liabilities for service delivery exercised by CPS only when there is economically and technically coordinated supply and demand.

How do you use Ethereum blockchain?

When the coordinated supply and demand for service delivery by CPS appears in the communication channels, lighthouses send a transaction for creating a contract liability. It includes technical and economic parameters of both parties’ agreement. As a result of service implementation and its verification by observation network lighthouses finalize the liability. Thus, we get two transactions in Ethereum blockchain: one for creation and another one for implementation of the CPS liability.

How are you going to support many kinds of different types of cyber physical systems?

We have implemented ROS support for the client realization in the Robonomics network, which is the framework both most promising and most widely used by creators of robots. It is used for creating a software realization of different robotics devices. A recent survey shows that ROS-packets have been downloaded 13 million times in 2017. The growth of the number of downloads for the same year is 59%. More on it here: http://download.ros.org/downloads/metrics/metrics-report-2017-07.pdf

Commission fees in Robonomics network

CPS being a party interested in direct service delivery to its users stimulates lighthouses to create contract liabilities with commission fees for services provided by them.

CPS services’ users being interested in control over implementation of liabilities accepted by machines with the help of commission fees stimulate observation networks to analyze operation logs appearing during the implementation of behavioral model by CPS.

Token emission

In the process of the service delivery by a cyber physical system Robonomics network will utilize gas in the Ethereum Blockchain. This happens every time when creating contract liabilities for service delivery from CPS and in the process of finalization of liability contract. Lighthouses will get a reward in the form of the XRT token emission for each utilized gas unit. Issued token will be located to the liability contract and released at the moment of contact liability finalization through the transfer to the account of finalizing lighthouse. Therefore, each fully implemented service will contribute to the growth of total number of XRT token. The more services are delivered via Robonomics network the faster its growth will be.

Is there any geographic reference for the Robonomics network?

No. The network is open one capable of solving global problems by its design.

Surprise me

Have you ever wondered that capital management replaces the usual process of direct production management universally? Robonomics network will enable fully robotized supple chains to respond to capital flow.

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